Zur Reformationsgeschichtsschreibung und der Rolle von Trient
Nachrichten aus dem Institut
Diego D’Amelio - Umkämpfte Grenzen. Die Verschiebungen der italienischen Grenzen im 20. Jahrhundert
This article examines the Italian state’s policies toward Italy’s northern and eastern borders from 1918 to the late 1970s. In particular, it focuses on the democratization process of those territories whose contested national sovereignty propelled both diplomatic and ideological tensions between Italy, Austria, and Yugoslavia after 1945. This study focuses on three pivotal moments that infl uenced the Italian presence on its frontiers and the relationship between Rome and two border territories as South Tyrol and Julian Venetia. First, it investigates the decline of the Hapsburg Empire and the rise of fascism in the border regions. Second, it stresses the defense of the border’s Italianness from 1945 to 1954 and discusses the diplomatic confrontation between Italy, Austria, and Yugoslavia. Third, it analyzes the years between 1954 and 1975 and suggests that the new political context led to the normalization of international, national, and local relations, concluding a long transition started after the annexation of the two border regions of Italy in 1918. This article demonstrates, in fact, that after 1954 these territories became the focal point of the process of political normalization between neighbors and, above all, emphasizes both continuities and discontinuities in the views and strategies of the central government and its political supporters toward the Italian borderlands since 1918.
Andrea Leonardi - Sind Tourismus und Krieg vereinbar? Eine Untersuchung über die habsburgischen Alpenländer im Ersten Weltkrieg
Recent studies have found that the various manifestations of economic, political, and social instability have an immediate effect on tourism. Financial fl uctuations, political and military crises, war, as well as terrorist incidents, capable of generating a climate of insecurity, have demonstrated their ability to disrupt the fl ow of tourism. It has been emphasized how wars constitute one of the most disruptive factors among all those leading to a slowdown, or even complete paralysis of tourist activities. This essay examines the negative impact of World War I on tourism in one area—the Habsburg Monarchy‘s alpine regions—which had gotten off to a very interesting and promising start in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. By analyzing the data collected by the k.k. Statistische Zentralkommission in Vienna, the devastating effect of war on tourism—particularly for destinations located along the front—becomes clear. Furthermore, it becomes clear how the negative effects of war on tourism did not vanish with the end of the armed confl ict but carried over into the postwar years.
Taku Minagawa - Der Kapuziner Marco d’Aviano und die Reichspolitik des Kaisers Leopold I. Mit einem Vergleich der theoretischen Struktur im vormodernen Japan
The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were the era of religious wars in both Europe and Japan. However, in Japan they ended relatively quickly and the country enjoyed lasting peace and religious tolerance; whereas in Europe the wars continued and the continent found it could contain religious wars only through the separation of church and state based on raison d’état. This paper analyzes the correspondence of the Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I with his adviser the Capuchin friar Marco d’Aviano during the Nine Years War. The decisive point is their understanding of «politics». As a Capuchin, Marco regarded «politics» as an egoistic affair for human beings and not for God. He wanted to touch only the affairs for God, including personnel and diplomatic matters, which in today’s understanding are «political». The emperor went along with him. Therefore, there was neither a separation of religion and politics nor national interest in them; it was a kind of theocracy. The key concept of their communication was the Providence of God. It was to be found not in theological doctrine, but in natural events and human dealings, including the alliances of the other confessional powers, by which the Habsburgs could play their diplomacy as if it were «rational». In premodern Japan, these events were also thought to be divine, but the gods were organized under the constitutional system of the Tenno, and his legitimacy in understanding the divine will was the basis of feudal Japan. Therefore, premodern Japanese rulers could not accept monotheistic Christianity because Christ as the creator of nature had to deny this system.