Leo Valiani - storico della Mitteleuropa. Incontro in occasione del centenario della nascita / Historiker Mitteleuropas. Tagung anlässlich seines 100. Geburtstages
Storiografia e politica: seminari di storia moderna / Geschichtsschreibung und Politik: Seminare zur Moderne
Veneto e Baviera. Due casi di modernizzazione / Veneto und Bayern. Zwei Mal Modernisierung
Christian Bonazza - Ricerca storica e potere politico nella storiografia italiana tra XIX e XX secolo
The paper explores the topical yet controversial relationship between history and political power by analyzing the development and the institutionalizing of Italian historical studies from the second half of 18th century up to the first decade of 19th century. History has long been of interest to political power, which aims at shaping the historical narrative and public celebration. Moreover, political power has often regarded history a key instrument of political and ideological legitimacy, which could substantiate its authority and strengthen the social and political order. History, therefore, becomes an essential instrument of political, religious, nationalistic, as well as ethnic ideologies.
Gustavo Corni - La modernizzazione e il «caso veneto». Spunti per una comparazione
The case of Veneto and of its development into one of the richest regions of Europe has been abundantly analyzed from an historical, economic, and sociological point of view. It has become a «model case» for its peculiar path to modernization, in which the original rural society – deeply conditioned by Catholic culture – developed into one of the most modern ones without particularly harsh contrasts and tensions. The role of the Church did not collapse in this process; nor did the old ruling elite, which consisted of a mix of noble and bourgeois landowners, who often turned entrepreneurs during the first spurt of industrial growth in Italy at the end of the 19th century. The Church played its role of moderation and control of the social tensions provoked by «progress» not only directly but also indirectly through the Catholic party, which had a strong hold on Veneto’s society since before World War I. After 1945, the hegemony of Catholic culture was embodied by the Christian-democratic party. The peculiar forms of this «smooth» transition, often used to explain Veneto’s atypical economic success story, can offer an interesting comparison with Bavaria – another strongly Catholic region –, whose rural character dominated up to the end of World War II and only more recently gave way to one of the fastest modernization processes of the whole continent.
Nicola D’Elia - Leo Valiani e la Germania: dalla Seconda guerra mondiale alla caduta del Muro
In Leo Valiani’s historical-political thought from World War II onwards the attention payed to Germany is not marginal, though it finds space mostly in occasional writings, most of which were published in newspapers and magazines. It is a symbolic token of his great sensitivity for the international dimension of contemporary history. Through Valiani’s extensive political journalism the works of many of the most important German contemporary historians circulated in Italian public opinion and the most pressing problems of German politics were framed in a wide historical view, which made it possible to get to the roots of the tragedy that involved Germany and Europe in World War II. Valiani frequently uses a comparative approach with Italian historical events, with the aim of pointing out common features to both cases.
Nicola D’Elia - Il cammino della Baviera verso l’industrializzazione (1870-1960)
Supported by statistical material, this essay outlines the socioeconomic development of Bavaria from the foundation of the German Empire until the early sixties of the last Century, highlighting how the region was characterized for a long time by a predominance of agriculture. Industrialization began much later here than in other parts of Germany, but in the decades after World War II it got off to a strong start – even above federal average – and radically changed the features of rural areas and villages, where urban lifestyles and codes of behavior asserted themselves. Among the factors that boosted this impetuous process of modernizing Bavarian society, the role played by refugees from eastern German territories is worthy of special – but in no way exclusive – attention.
Mara Dissegna - Una riflessione sullo sviluppo economico veneto
This short paper presents a reflection on the development of the Italian Northeast. It pays particular attention to the Veneto in the period following the end of World War II up to the 1970s. With the scope of presenting a true ‘image’ of the areas’ population, the data of the censuses taken in 1951, 1961, and 1971 for the entire Northeast and especially the Veneto is accounted for. The essay closes with some considerations stemming from the elaboration of the regional data.
Ilona Fried - Dal cuore multietnico al totalitarismo. Leo Valiani e l’Ungheria
This article looks into Leo Valiani’s interest in Hungarian history, beginning with his upbringing in multiethnic, multicultural Fiume where he learned Hungarian in primary school. He got to be interested in politics and Hungarian culture at the age of 9 – at the time of the Hungarian Soviet Republic of Béla Kun – when the family stayed in Budapest. The paper intends to investigate the historian’s and politician’s vision of some aspects of Hungarian history through a number of events and people he was in contact with: by looking at his correspondence with Franco Venturi and Arthur Koestler, as well as his essays on the revolution and war of independence of 1848/49, the Soviet Republic of 1919, and his view of the revolution of 1956. Even after the execution of Imre Nagy, he noticed a substantial difference between the trial of Nagy and the previous ones in the 1940s and 50s, making it possible for a future politician like Deák to arrive on the scene and reach a compromise after the tyranny as in the case of the 1867 Ausgleich.
Maddalena Guiotto - Leo Valiani, storico della «finis Austriae»
The interpretative question of the finis Austriae lies at the center of Leo Valiani’s historiografic writings – so much so that that his most important publication is dedicated to it: La dissoluzione dell’Austria-Ungheria. Here, the author reconstructs the last fifteen years of the Dual Monarchy, the growing nationalistic movements during the war, the emergence of numerous ethnic groups, as well as the inevitable failure of the reforms of the Habsburg Monarchy. According to Valiani, the Monarchy’s major elements of frailty are to be looked for in the weakness of the political-institutional system and the failed adaptation to modern times, more than in the national conflict which, regardless of how bitter it might have been, only in marginal cases led to movements that aimed for the dismemberment of the Dual Monarchy. Valiani stresses how foreign politics and national questions merged in determining the decision taken on July 28, 1914, that doubtlessly proved crucial for the fate of the Empire, which would have been hard put to survive a war, but which in no way could survive military defeat.
Tobias Hof - Vom «asozialen Verbrecher» zum «Staatsfeind Nr. 1». Die Wahrnehmung des italienischen Terrorismus in Regierung und Parlament (1969-1987)
Of all Western European countries, the Italian state faced the highest number of terrorist attacks in the 1970s and 1980s. How did the political elite perceive this menace? After a period of disregard (1969-1974), the perception within the establishment slowly began to change: increasingly, terrorist groups were regarded as a major threat for the Italian state. Terrorism came to represent the concept of ‘common enemy’ for the majority of the political parties. This new notion permitted a closer cooperation especially between the Communist Party and the Christian Democrats and thus resulted in a stabilization of the political system of the Italian Republic. With the decline of terrorist attacks, the concept of ‘common enemy’ also faded and the traditional ideological rivalry between Communists and Christian Democrats flourished again.
Massimo Mastrogregori - La «Storia di un anno» di Mussolini (1944), Carlo Antoni e la presentazione fascista del passato
The following remarks on a number of scholars and the Fascist historical imaginary in the middle of the 20th century (including such expositions as EUR and archaeological site arrangement) resume the reflection that began with an essay on the «collaboration» of three Italian historians – Carlo Antoni, Federico Chabod, and Arnaldo Momigliano – with the Fascist regime. In a chapter of Storia di un anno, first published in the «Corriere della Sera» in July 1944, Benito Mussolini asked: are we facing an eclipse or the dusk of the Italian nation? An eclipse, he answered: Italy, like ancient Rome or Prussia, cannot die. The current war, he went on, is a war of religion, not of nations. The lost honor will be reacquired only through bloodshed in a fight that is also a civil war: first of all, the contempt of the German ally for the treason of September 8, 1943 needs to be erased. The historical references of Mussolini’s speech also stemmed from a report by a scholar of the Italian Institute for German Studies, Carlo Antoni, his voluntary or involuntary collaborator. The episode allowed me to clarify that, in the case of relationships between high culture and totalitarian regimes, the correct question, in my view, is not if the scholars were fascists, antifascists, or pure «technicians» (as the jurist Piero Calamandrei intended to be), but another one: what was the political space in which their work was carried out? The thorough analysis of Antoni's report, eventually found in the Archivio Centrale dello Stato in July 2009, helps us answer this important question.
Antonio Merlino - Vittorio Frosini e l’eredità di Hans Kelsen in Italia: il diritto come morfologia della prassi
In the early Sixties, the Sicilian jurist Vittorio Frosini was the first to attempt an historicization of Hans Kelsen’s Italian inheritance. Frosini asserts that we cannot disregard the extreme outcomes of the reine Rechstlehre and in a lucid criticism of Kelsenism, he points out that the law is not an empty form of Kantian purity, but instead, structure, social praxis, and «morphology of the praxis».
Anthony Molho - Vite spezzate / Biografie (ri)costruite. Storici del Rinascimento ebrei tedeschi in America nel periodo bellico
Based on the lives of a small group of German Jewish historians (all specialists in the history of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance) in this article I address a set of issues regarding questions dealing with writing of a collective biography. The issue at hand is not so much to trace the adventurous lives of these scholars as to gauge how experiences of displacement and exile coloured their perception of the past and their historical interpretations.
Andrea Ricciardi - Leo Valiani tra politica e storia
Starting with the years of his education (characterized by an uncompromising antifascism that led him first to jail and then into exile), this paper investigates Valiani’s political militancy and the other activities that distinguished his development: journalism, historical research, and the bank. Beyond Valiani’s stages in party politics – connected with his complicated personal situation (from the PCd’I to the GL and the Pd’A, and not to forget experiences in the PR and the following relations with the PRI), stages that indicate the deep ideological and cultural changes that took place from the 1920s to the 1980s – a central aspect that emerges is the relationship between politics, lived as an authentic mission with strong ethical content, and history, a discipline that was always of fundamental importance for Valiani and that, over time, allowed him to thoroughly question his own choices.
Gian Paolo Romagnani - La storiografia modernistica del Novecento. Generazioni a confronto
Rather than a history of historiography understood as a history of historiographical ideas and interpretations, we propose a social history of the historians using the generational approach for better understanding the changeover between the various generations of modernist historians that have passed through the 20th century (World War I, Fascism, the Resistance, the period after the war, 1968) among the construction of a national identity, various forms of revisionism, and the redefinition of the great historiographical paradigms.
Francesca Roversi Monaco - Politica e diritto nell’Europa medievale e moderna.Considerazioni su di un libro recente
Leonida Tedoldi - Costruire la giustizia internazionale. Alle origini delle organizzazioni giudiziarie internazionali: temi e problemi
How can we talk about the origins of international justice? The long process of building international judicial organizations may be rooted in the strengthening of projects of international judicial institutions and in the political interaction among element of the European (and American) society, such as intellectuals, lawyers, as well as political and «pacifist» groups. This interaction was consolidated in the struggle over support for the introduction of compulsory international arbitration in peaceful conflict resolution between states. During the 19th century, arbitration was to become an arena of dialogue in the field of international politics among politicians, diplomats, and western governments up to The Hague conferences of 1899 and 1907, which established the first international court of arbitration and the International Prize Court. Napoleon’s exile to the island of St. Helena, imposed by the European powers, and the atrocities of the bloody conflict in the Austrian part of Italy, as well as the Franco-Prussian war did not influence the forms of international justice, at least until World War I, but the slow and complex introduction of policy and diplomatic «devices» for the peaceful resolution of disputes between states and the changes in international relations of the late 19th century. Then, World War I transformed the general framework and the Allied powers attempted to impeach a monarch for the first time in European history.
Alessandro Paris - L’eredità di Cristoforo Madruzzo. Il testamento e l’inventario dei beni