Jörg Arnold - Il raid aereo su Kassel del 22 ottobre 1943 nella sua interpretazione storica
This essay analyzes different versions of an anonymous poem that first circulated in the city of Kassel after the heavy RAF attack of October 22, 1943, in order to sketch elements of continuity and change in the memory culture of the air war from the 1940s through the 1990s. It argues that public memory revolved around three major themes. These themes were mass death, destruction, and suffering. The public confrontation with each drew on specific narrative traditions that shaped the form and content of public memory. Death was remembered by way of public commemorations while the destruction of the city was conceptualized in terms of the idea of Heimat lost and regained. Finally, the suffering of the population was illustrated in exhibitions and documentary accounts. In a temporal perspective, the essay distinguishes among three phases: the institutionalization of a memory culture in the 1950s; progressive ossification in the 1960s and 1970s; and a renaissance of memory from the 1980s to the present.
Valeria Chilese - Le cause matrimoniali discusse presso il tribunale vescovile veronese tra XV e XVIII secolo
This paper asses the results of a research project conducted on the material pertaining to matrimonial trials conserved at the Archives of the Curia of Verona. The over 700 cases examined allow sketching the situation of matrimonial conflictuality in the 16th century, which is well represented in its various aspects in the papers held in the Archives. On a comparative note, the less numerous cases dating to the 17th and 18th centuries provide interesting indications about the transformation of marriage in Verona and about the slow, but ‘inevitable’ affirmation of the Tridentine norms in the dioceses under the Scaligeri family.
Giovanni Ciappelli - Carte geografiche e politicanei rapporti tra Firenze e il Portogallonel Quattrocento
Beyond the still surviving 14th/15th-century maps – just a small portion of the cartographic production of the time –, mention of them is made in different kinds of contemporary documents (private diaries, account books, inventories, and letters). Using theses references, which are often too synthetic to allow an exact identification of the maps, is sometimes rather difficult for the historian. Nevertheless, there can be cases where an extensive and thorough reconstruction of the specific context can both suggest a different kind of methodological approach and allow a more sophisticated reading of a rather small piece of information. Starting with the mention of a map loaned to Paolo Toscanelli in 1459, this paper examines the (political, economic, and cultural) relations between Florence and Portugal in the 15th century, and the possible aims, which led to the Portuguese knowledge of Italian maps and their commissioning in the years from 1440-1460.
Alessandro Cont - Leopoldo Ernesto Firmian (1708-1783) e l’arcidiocesi di Salisburgo
The year 1753 brought a prolonged conflict to the cathedral chapter of Salzburg, which was supposed to elect its new archbishop. Four canons, who already had the bishop’s dignity, tried to obtain a papal brief for eligibility, which was to facilitate their candidacy for the empty position; the confrères tried to hinder this. One of the canons was the Trentino count Leopoldo Ernesto Firmian, bishop of Seckau, who turned to Pope Benedict XIV. with a letter. In the election of one of the canon bishops, Firmian sees the only way to restore the spiritual government of the archdioceses «threatened» by the Lutherans. The intervention is typical for both his rigorist pastoral orientation, as well as certain strategies of family politics. He is backed by the Court in Vienna. Yet, for spiritual reasons and motivated by church politics the pope refuses to acquiesce, and thus once more conditions the outcome of the Salzburg elections.
Stefan Goebel - Coventry e Dresda: reti transnazionali della memoria negli anni Cinquanta e Sessanta
In November 1940, an air raid left almost the whole city center of Coventry in ruins. Yet, the experience of bombing – or «Coventration» in Nazi diction – became a spark of life in Coventry’s international mission of peace and reconciliation. In the aftermath of World War II, Coventrians sought to negotiate transnationally the meaning of the recent past and its implications for the future. Coventry became a worldwide symbol around which local politicians and the cathedral clergy spun a web of commemorative partnerships with war-torn cities in Europe and beyond. Dresden proved Coventry’s most important and co-operative partner in the two decades after World War II. The earliest contacts between the two cities date back to 1956 – long before the East German regime was officially recognized by the British government. This essay focuses on the ties between Coventry and Dresden – both on the civic and the ecclesiastical level – during the 1950s and 1960s.
Stefan Malfèr - Angelo Ara und die österreichisch-italienischen Beziehungen
At the beginning of Angelo Ara’s career – in the 1960s and 70s – both Italian historiography and historiography on the Habsburg Empire were undergoing a period of great change. No longer was the national state the paradigm that generated a positive judgment on Italy and a negative one on Austria, the «prison of peoples», but the study of the economic and social development of the single states, and of the nations and nationalities. In that period the political situation between Italy and Austria was very tense because of the South Tyrol question. In these circumstances Angelo Ara, entreated by other historians and stimulated by his ancestry and his Triestine origins, embarked on his scientific activity – animated by the desire for mutual comprehension – of overcoming the old hard feelings, of reconciliation with the historic enemy, and of coming to terms with one’s own history. This attitude, which distinguished his whole life, made Ara a historian capable of not only bringing Italian and Austrian historiography closer, but also of personally becoming a figure of major importance and esteem in the improvement of Italian-Austrian relations.
Francesco Palermo - Il nucleo essenziale dell’autonomia, tra l’Accordo di Parigi e il «terzo Statuto»
This paper explores the legal meaning of the principle of special treatment laid down in the Italian constitution for the special Regions. In particular, the study argues for the existence of a core of rights of the special autonomous provinces of Bolzano/Bozen and Trento, which cannot be unilaterally cancelled by the State. On the basis of the constitutional adjudication, it is suggested that the «core autonomy rights» have a twofold dimension: on the one hand, the minimum of autonomy does coincide with the international guarantee provided by the 1946 Paris Agreement; on the other hand, and even more importantly, there is a procedural guarantee for the special status of the two provinces, meaning that any change in the constitutional arrangement must be carried out via negotiations on equal footing between the State and the autonomous provinces. Against this background, the political and legal discourse on possible future developments of the autonomy regime is analysed and re-constructed, focusing on the areas in which a constitutional reform of the regime is exceedingly necessary. Finally, the prospective evolution of the autonomy arrangement is analysed, by reading the political priorities through a legal lens and showing that there is a gap between political and legal «fears» regarding the future of the special autonomy for Trentino and South Tyrol.
Günther Pallaver - Demokratie, Partizipation und Kommunikation als Voraussetzung für eine ungeteilte Autonomie
An autonomy is always to be measured against its democratic dimension, which is strictly connected to questions of participation. The South Tyrolean political system of a consociational democracy envisions maximal participation of all language groups. In this respect, an increasing imbalance has occurred over the last years, and this has led to a political crisis. This paper examines the reasons for the crisis and puts forward a number of reform proposals (system of government, ethnic proportion, social input, etc.). An important role in overcoming the currently «divided autonomy» is played by political communication. The making of a united public coupled with a pooling of common interests in parties and associations comprehending all linguistic groups can not only help overcome the system’s current crisis but can also initiate the passage towards a new model of conflict resolution, which provides for the deconstruction of the ethnic element.
Jože Pirjevec - Angelo Ara e il problema della «frontiera orientale»
This paper is deals with Angelo Ara’s relationship with the Slovenes of Trieste. It begins with the description of Ara’s family, which belonged to the Jewish community of Trieste, but was above all characterized by the irredentist and liberal-national militancy of his forefathers. This political leaning went hand in hand with strongly negative feelings towards the local Slovene population, which was considered culturally inferior but also dangerous to the hegemony exercised by the elite, to which the Ara family belonged. From here stems the adherence of that elite to fascism when it came to power. Yet this alliance was of short duration and crumbled under the brutality of Mussolini’s 1938 special laws for the defense of the race. The Jews, including those by then estranged from the religious community, as was the case of the Ara, found themselves in a very exposed situation, similar to that of the Slovenes of Trieste, whose fate they shared during the dark years of World War II. From these dramatic goings-on, Angelo Ara managed to draw positive lessons for his activity as historian. In fact, he open-mindedly tackled the problem of the «Western border» and began a fertile intellectual dialogue with his Slovene colleagues, based on the conviction of the necessity of a balanced examination of their shared history.
Paolo Pombeni - La storia come peso e come liberazione. Considerazioni sui contesti del rapporto fra Italia, Sudtirolo e Trentino
The historiographic polemics regarding the Gruber-De Gasperi-Agreement do not take a number of important elements into account. The first is the curious forgetting of the long history of Tyrolian hostility against the striving for autonomy on behalf of the Trentino in the last phase of the Habsburg Empire, an opposition which was fostered by an exasperated and integralist German nationalism. The second is the delicate position in which Italy found itself in the peace talks after World War II, when it had to proceed in an inferior position and with a public opinion that did not understand what was happening. De Gasperi approached the issue with these two issues hanging over him, while the south Tyrolean community limited its considerations to the persecutions suffered during fascism. Only by understanding the complex nature of this history can one conquer the old pre-judices of both sides and only then will historiography be able to contribute to the overcoming of the past by way of its comprehension.
Sonja Puntscher Riekmann - Die Entstehung Europas: Josefinische und republikanische Leitbilder. Thesen zur europäischen Identitätsdebatte im Lichte der Mitteleuropa-Idee
Taking the question about what lessons the multinational Habsburg Empire may teach the European Union as a starting point, this article develops three arguments: first, the inability of the Habsburg Empire to master the increasing nationalism of its peoples by transforming the imperial rule into a republican constitutional system of democratic representation of citizens may serve as a negative example for the European Union. In fact, many of the problems the EU is facing today stem from a «Josephinistic» style of decision-making largely geared towards top-down modernization of European societies. Second, the European Union can hardly solve its legitimacy crisis without engaging in a serious debate about appropriate models of supranational democracy apt to justify the ever-growing loss of sovereignty of its members. Third, in order to achieve this goal the European Union does not need a pre-existing «people». The people in terms of demos will eventually emerge from a democratic process of common action, from the agonistic (or even antagonistic) struggle for a common vision of the European polity and common policies to be implemented according to common (legal) rules.
Gian Enrico Rusconi - Jürgen Habermas, tra naturalismo e religione
This paper critically examines the major theses put forth by Jürgen Habermas in his book The Future of Human Nature and in certain passages of the volume Faith and Knowledge. In the first book, Habermas expresses his preoccupation that genetic engineering will sweep away the normative criteria, which must guide «enlightened» rational behavior. He especially fears that out-of-control biotechnologies will lead to the uncontrolled manipulation of human nature. In this respect, the philosopher from Frankfurt introduces the concepts of nature and of natural biological presuppositions as the foundations of ethics. He speaks of the «nature that we are» and therefore of the interplay of morals and normality, and proposes a new version of his «discourse ethics». The author of this paper lists a number of doubts as to the efficiency of this conceptual strategy, which leads Habermas to questionable positions of practical ethics. In this connection, Habermas shows a generous opening towards religions and proposes an attitude of reciprocal attention and learning between religion and lay rationality. Here the famous dialogue with Joseph Ratzinger comes into play, whose relevance for truth has been largely overrated. In addition to this it is useful to remember the great demands the philosopher from Frankfurt makes on religion (that it establish a «cognitively dissonant» confrontation with the other religions; that it accept the authority of science; that it recognize the lay.
Thomas Schlemmer - «Tedeschi a piedi». Der Rückzug deutscher und italienischer Truppen vom Don im Winter 1942-1943 am Beispiel des Grenadierregiments 318
Mussolini’s war against the Soviet Union and the terrible end of the Eighth Italian Army remain deeply engraved in the Italian collective memory. The recollection of the Campagna di Russia is inextricably linked with the picture of the Germans, who – it is said – revealed their true face on the Eastern Front and betrayed their bravely fighting Italian brothers in arms, in order to save themselves. The German soldiers are said to have comfortably ridden West in motor vehicles, indifferently leaving their Italian comrades to a cruel fate. By means of a document, this paper propses to show that reality was far more complex und that the experiences of German and Italian front-line soldiers were much more similar than it mostly seems in retrospect.
Thomas Schlemmer e Dietmar Süß - Vittime degli alleati? La memoria della guerra aerea in Germania e in Italia
For large parts of the German but also the Italian population air raids were part of the central experiences of World War II. Aerial warfare required the mobilization of all available economic, scientific, and technological resources and for this reason, it represented the culmination of modern warfare for developed industrial nations in the 20th century. Thomas Schlemmer and Dietmar Süß enquire about the significance of bombings in the collective memory of German and Italian society against this backdrop and show that in Italy its historiographic accounting for is still in its early stages. The paper thus sets the frame for the following essays by Stefan Goebel, Jörg Arnold, and Malte Thießen, regarding the cyclic recollection of air raids after 1945 in Germany using the cities of Dresden, Kassel, and Hamburg as examples.
Rolf Steininger - Das Gruber-De Gasperi-Abkommen. Südtirols Magna Charta
In 1945/46, the allies denied the return of South Tyrol to Austria. Early on, that country had fallen victim to the Cold War. In view of these facts, Austria’s Foreign Secretary Karl Gruber made the best of what could still be obtained, i.e. autonomy for South Tyrol. In Paris on September 5, 1946, he and his Italian colleague Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi signed the treaty named after them, which became part of the Italian peace treaty. The treaty was not ideal, but it guaranteed the survival of the South Tyrolese in a foreign state, it internationalized the South Tyrol problem, and it became something like the «Magna Charta» for South Tyrol.
Gerald Stourzh - Angelo Ara und die österreichische Geschichte
This obituary of Angelo Ara (1942-2006) concentrates on Ara’s work connected with Austrian History, of which he was an expert of the first order. Ara frequently visited Austria, for two academic years he was visiting Professor at the University of Vienna, and he was a Corresponding Member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. His most important works in connection with Austria are arranged into six groups according to main themes: The Italians in Habsburg Austria, nationality problems in Habsburg Austria, the history of republican Austria, international relations and foreign policy, profiles of eminent historians (Ernest Sestan, Leo Valiani, Franco Valsecchi, John Rath, Adam Wandruszka, Heinrich Lutz), and Jewish history. Special attention is paid to Ara’s concern to overcome mental borders separating populations living close together, like Slovenes and Italians in the Carso area, or to salvage groups like the Italians fighting in the Austro-Hungarian army in World War I from oblivion. His power of empathy with «the other», notably with the «neighboring stranger» was great and characterizes his quality as a historian and human being.
Malte Thießen - La memoria dell’«Operazione Gomorra». Amburgo, la cultura della memoria e l’identità cittadina
Although the physical destruction of «Action Gomorrha» – as the Royal Air Force called the bombing of Hamburg in the Summer of 1943 – was cleared from the cityscape a long time ago, it still has tremendous importance for the self-perception of the city. This essay traces the urban memory of the air war from the commemorations in the 1950s up to the memory-boom of the 1990s. In the past 60 years, politicians, journalists, historians, and members of the church interpreted the «catastrophe» of ’43 as a test on comradeship and resistance, as a «zero-hour» and founding myth, or as liberation from Nazism. These public narratives were influenced by contemporary events such as the reconstruction, the re-armament controversy, debates on anti-Semitism or on the «Third Reich» in general. Generational change also played an important role. In Germany, the essay argues, the air war has always been a useful past – with consequences for the present.
Francesca Traldi - Willy Brandt e il nuovo stile politico nella campagna elettorale 1961
With the 1961 election campaign, Willy Brandt launched a new approach in the search for political consensus. It saw the massive use of all means of mass communication and demoscopic instruments, such as, statistical surveys and population polls conducted by the most important research institutes. The choice of the Social Democratic candidate Willy Brandt, mayor of West Berlin, accentuated the rupture of the SPD with its Marxist past, and allowed the party to present a new political course. The 1961 elections were in fact not characterized by party programs by but by the candidates’ emerging strong personalities, a novelty for the German Social Democracy, which took the CDU by surprise and made the campaign even harsher in its tones and attacks with respect to the preceding ones.
Jens Woelk - Der Wesensgehalt der Autonomie: Art. 2 – Grundnorm des Autonomiestatuts
A legal and comparative analysis of the Gruber-De Gasperi-Agreement, of its text and its implementation, shows the Agreement’s innovative character and confirms the thesis that its fundamental elements and their combination have provided the necessary orientation and guidance through the various and difficult periods of its implementation. Of course, the short text of the Agreement could only offer a framework to be filled later on, but the compromise character of the fundamental principles as well as the method of bilateral conflict-resolution laid the base for a sustainable elaboration. Already highlighting the dual nature of the compromise – minority-protection (for the German speaking group) and territorial autonomy (for the whole population of the area) – the Agreement indicates the balances to be found by consensus. These elements constitute its strengths and essential core, while the deliberately indeterminate scope of its territorial application and the non-consideration of the Ladins can be seen as its greatest shortcomings, which could be overcome through the subsequent application of its fundamental principles and by consultation, «in a spirit of equity and broad-mindedness».