Viorel Achim - Romania and the Refugees from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina after 1944
From March to August 1944, with the Red Army approaching and the Romanian army and administration retreating from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, around 300,000 residents from the two territories (10% of the total population) moved west of the newly established Romanian-Soviet frontier. The situation of these Romanian citizens was seriously threatened after the Armistice Convention between Romania and the United Nations was signed on September 12, 1944. Moscow insisted the Romanian government turn over the refugees from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina because of the fact that they were Soviet citizens. This paper deals with the forced repatriation of Bessarabians and Bukovinians, carried out by the Soviet commands and the local delegates of the Allied (Soviet) Control Commission with the support of the Romanian administration. Most of these repatriations took place in 1945. Spontaneous repatriations continued at least until 1948. According to official statistics, 56,450 persons were forcibly repatriated during the period from August 23, 1944 to September 30, 1946. The final number was higher, but the majority of refugees escaped repatriation and stayed in Romania. This paper also addresses the issue of the integration of the refugees with the local population and their relations with the authorities between 1944-1948 and later, during the Communism.
Pertti Ahonen - Collective Action and Expellee Integration: West Germany, East Germany, and Finland after the Second World War
This article examines the degree to which the ability of forced migrants – or expellees – to engage in autonomous collective action affected their societal integration in post-1945 Europe. Through a comparison of West Germany, East Germany, and Finland, it argues that the presence of autonomous expellee organizations and their extensive inclusion into the political system produced significant benefits in both West Germany and Finland, whereas the suppression of independent expellee representation delayed and complicated the integration process in the GDR. However, not all activities of the expellee organizations were equally helpful. The organizations’ efforts to secure appropriate benefits for the newcomers, to preserve their social connections and cultural traditions, and generally to expedite their readjustment to new social and political conditions played a very constructive role. However, attempts to pursue territorial revisions in hopes of a return to the lost homelands were predominantly harmful for integration, particularly when such designs were instrumentalized for self-serving causes by mainstream political elites.
Xosé Luis Barreiro Rivas - La función del Camino de Santiago en la estructuración del espacio europeo
The spatial structure of politics has been adapting to the historic reality of the state since the 14th century, and is now on the verge of its definitive crisis. The citizens of the European Union, who live this crisis in a conscious and accelerated manner, need to create a new space in order to avoid fragmentation – a space that would provide a frame of wisdom and socialization in our new political entity. In order to achieve this, it is necessary that political science once again tackle the problem of space building and the instrumental techniques that might solve it by thoroughly revising the historical processes that led to the birth of Europe. The following paper deals with the restructuring of western European space during the Carolingian period, with specific focus on the city of Santiago, which encapsulates the cosmological model of European Christianity in the low middle age.
Lucia Bianchin - Censura e disciplina sociale. Problemi storiografici
This essay presents a preliminary effort towards the examination of censorship in the early modern period. It contains a historiographic review of the development of studies on the control of society in the late middle ages and in the early modern period published primarily in Germany over the last 35 years. The contiguous nature of the two concepts «censorship» and «social disciplining» emerges strongly in the contextual doctrinal development of the institute of censorship: from canonistic punishment to a function of state administration centered on the problem of maintaining order, a strict regulation of costumes, invasive control systems, and a broad spectrum of instruments of coercion. In reconstructing this historical and political framework, we will also consider the related topics of confessionalization and the formation of the modern states, of the church’s disciplining of sins and the state’s disciplining of crimes, of the most important regulatory instruments adopted.
Annemarie Brückner - St. Michael vom Monte Gargano in Deutschland
In Germany and in the other countries north of the Alps the cult of St. Michael is present primarily in sanctuaries on mountains and in grottos. The origin of the cult is the Monte Gargano in Puglia where – according to the legend – the archangel appeared on earth. From the early Middle Ages on numerous churches and chapels were constructed in honor of St. Michael. The cult was promoted by European monk orders and by the Society of Jesus in the early modern period, during the catholic reform. The Jesuits propagated Michael as the defender of the true faith. The places of memory of the archangel possess strong symbolic force. His most important trait is the mediation between heaven and earth, God and humankind. This leads to his role as protector for the individual in life and in death. Michael is thought to accompany the souls of the dead. His legitimation is founded in the Holy Scriptures.
Wolfgang Brückner - Methodische Probleme der Erstellung von Wallfahrtstopographien für Mitteleuropa
Maps for cultural atlases are methodological tools for cultural analysis, but never the representation of final results. They are useful for the spatial representation of basic data from which our scientific interrogations arise. The mapping of historical surveys merely results in statistical surface diagrams. Topographies of pilgrimages exist since the 17th century, e.g., the Atlas Marianus compiled by the Jesuit W. Gumppenberg. In the middle of the 20th century, G. Gugitz inventoried Österreichs Gnadenstätten in Kultur und Brauch in six volumes with the help of an unspecific notion of cult in specific places. In central Europe, the problem of definition for a distinguishing treatment of places of pilgrimage and of the celebration of pilgrimage has also been a question of the tradition of knowledge since the 16th century. Selective data on the one hand and conscious striving for continuity on the other require mutual «inventory and analysis».
Maria Teresa Caciorgna - Organizzazione del territorio e spazio dei santuari nel Lazio basso-medievale
The relationship between the origin of sanctuaries and the history of the territory can be confirmed by studying the sanctuaries in Latio, which also leads to the identification of the various types of sanctuaries. To begin with, martyr sanctuaries are accounted for in written and archaeological sources. They were founded in the Middle Ages, nearly always along the old main roads. It is more difficult to find chronological traces of the sanctuaries founded after this time and up to the thirteenth century in new castels or border areas (Santissima Trinità di Vallepietra). Only after the fourteenth/fifteenth century has the foundation of many new sanctuaries – mostly dedicated to the holy virgin – been well documented by legends of their foundation, miracles books, and pilgrimage accounts. The local communities participated in their foundation (Madonna della Quercia in Viterbo, Madonna della Delibera in Tarracina), as well as the local nobility (Madonna del Buon Consiglio in Genezzano, Madonna delle Grazie in Scandriglia). In addition to the Benedictines, new religious orders (Franciscans, Predicants etc.) were also involved in this process. The portrayed sanctuaries are located in the countryside, in small castles, and in border areas undergoing intensive economic and social changes (the sanctuaries of Tolfa).
Giovanni Ciappelli - Memoria collettiva e memoria culturale. La famiglia fra antico e moderno
This paper is based on a preliminary text read at a colloquium at the Istituto storico italo-germanico in Trento at the end of 1999 on «Memory, tradition, and identity between antiquity and modern times. Jan Assmanns’ La memoria culturale». Prompted by the egyptologist’s weel-known book, the author reflects on the interpretation of cultural memory applied to the topic of family memory. Following in Assmanns’ footsteps, the author first emphasises how the most precocious starting point of reflection on the relationship between collective memory and family memory are present in the elaboration of Maurice Halbwachs. The author then proposes to verify to what degree the topic of family memory is present in Assmanns’ elaboration and whether it can articulate itself in relationship to epochs and context different from those dealt with by the German egyptologist. The second part of the paper, which takes up topics already examined by the author in other writings contained a long term reconstruction of the forms of family memory from antiquity to modern period, with particular consideration given to the topic of ceremonies, anniversary, and their variation over time. In those models – discarded and taken up again in due course – the ancient world plays everything but a secondary role.
Daniel Drascek - Räumliche Horizonte. Zur Konstruktion von Räumlichkeit durch frühneuzeitliche Mobilität zu süddeutschen Kultstätten
Places of cult and pilgrims have reciprocal spatial references subject to dynamic changes, which allow various inferences about changing religious and cultural significances. In this essay the catchment area of the pilgrimage to the Schmerzhafte Gottesmutter of Elchingen (between Munich and Stuttgart), a baroque pilgrimage typical for southern Germany, is presented in its spatial-temporal interweave. How pilgrims experienced the space they crossed and what spatial notions were thus developed, depended on religious motivation as well as the subjective disposition and the sensual quality of the perceptible spatial experience. As of yet, too little is known about the shifting preferences for individual places of cult and the complexity of spatial experiences of the early modern pilgrim.
Anna Benvenuti e Isabella Gagliardi - La geografia dei miracoli: santuari in Toscana tra medioevo ed età moderna
This essay analyzes the data from the Censimento dei santuari toscani carried out within the project Censimento dei santuari cristiani in Italia coordinated by the Ecole Française de Rome. It begins following the considerations of the Florentine writer and intellectual Franco Sacchetti on the devotional volubility of his fellow citizens and on the sanctuary «fashions» extant in Florentine society at the beginning of the 15th century. Through Sacchetti’s criticisms it becomes possible to identify a twofold perception of the «sanctity» of certain locations and to discern the difference that separates the «ordinary nature» of a devotional offering distributed through the (regular and secular) ecclesiastic structure and the «extraordinary epiphanic nature» of sanctuaries, seen as locations where a particular manifestation has sanctioned the presence of the divine and the possibility of receiving grace. The text also takes a closer look at the development of sanctuaries in Tuscany. It pays special attention to the relationship between the evolution of saint cults and the evolution of the devotion to Mary and then inquires as to the necessity of contextualizing the reconstruction of the phenomenon to the dynamics of diocesan history and to the formational process of the regional state.
Cristina Galasso - «Nasce questa aversione da un punto di religione per una parte e di superbia per l’altra». Ebrei italiani e sefarditi a Livorno tra Sei e Settecento
Unlike in other Italian and European Jewish communities, distinct and separate «nations» based on «ethnicity» never formed in the Jewish community of Livorno. Partially to blame for this are doubtlessly the Livonine and the attitude of the Tuscan government, which privileged and protected the Spanish and Marrano origin of the Livorno community from the end of the16th century onward. Thus, at least until the middle of the 18th century, the community’s political, social, and economic life was exclusively controlled by the Sephardic majority, which denied the Italian Jews any attempts at autonomy. At the end of the 17th century, however, the Italian component, which had grown demographically and economically, demanded entry into the government of the nation and the Grand
duke granted the Italian Jews the possibility of being elected to the office of Massari in 1715. This did not however lead to the effective and immediate equilibrium of political representation or to the disappearance of tensions between the two groups. For the entire 18th century in fact, profound economic and social differences prevailed between the Italian and Sephardic Jews, as the difficulties with which matrimonial exchanges took place demonstrate.
Klaus Ganzer - La conclusione dell’edizione degli atti del concilio di Trento
The documents on the history of the Council of Trent paint a colorful picture. While Pius IV wanted to render all texts concerning the council of Trent public at its conclusion, his followers issued a strict veto. Thus, the material concerning the council in the Vatican archives remained inaccessible to the public for centuries. The reason being that one was afraid the enemies of the Catholic Church might find material for their purposes there. In 1881, Leo XIII opened the Vatican Archives to scientific research. Shortly thereafter the ban on the publication of the material regarding the history of the Council of Trent was broken and the Görres-Gesellschaft began elaborating a critical edition of the conciliar sources. The texts were divided in diaries, protocols, letters, and tractates. Volume I, containing part of the diaries and edited by Sebastian Merkle, was published in 1901 by Herder. Over the years, a number of scholars – among them Stephan Ehses, Theobald Freudenberger, and Hubert Jedin – edited the next volumes. In 2001, the author of this paper presented the last volume of the tractates (volume XIII/2 of the complete edition), which covers the period from September 1562 until the end of the Council. It contains important documents such as opinions of emperor Ferdinand, the European kings and Princes, but also the agenda of the Council. Now this vast effort is concluded – 100 years after its onset.
Antonio García y García OFM - Metodología editorial de los concilios generales del Bajo Medioevo
This paper discusses the publication of the material regarding the medieval councils from the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 to the Council of Trent, 1545-1563. The many years of studying and researching this topic came to a close with the publication of a book on the Fourth Lateran Council: Constitutiones Concilii quarti Lateranensis una cum Commentariis glossatorum (Monumenta iuris canonici. Series A: Corpus glossatorum, 2), Città del Vaticano 1981. The ground work for this book required numerous articles dedicated to different aspects of the Fourth Lateran Council.
Mark Gilbert - La Germania nazionalsocialista nel giudizio dei ‘progressisti’ britannici dal 1933 al 1945
This essay reconstructs the attitudes of the intellectuals of the British Left towards Nazi Germany between 1933 and the end of World War II. The essay argues that the leading British «progressives» had a profoundly ideological view of Nazism that led them to hope forlornly that the war could be ended by propaganda for European economic planning and supranational institutions and would be ended by the German people themselves. All in all, the attitude of British «progressives» towards Nazi Germany is an interesting case study in how political discourse can be driven less by objective investigation of political realities than by convictions. Ideology often confers certainty of judgment, but all too often does not confer discernment.
Jerzy Kochanowski - «Evacuation» or «Expulsion»? The Displacement of Poles from the Former Polish Eastern Territories 1944-1946
Because of the arrangements made in Teheran (1943) and Yalta (1945), the eastern territories of interwar Poland (Kresy) were annexed by the Soviet Union. In compensation, Poland received the previously German territories to its west and north. The new borders entailed the mass-migration of Poles, Germans, and Ukrainians. In September 1944 the pro-Soviet Polish Committee of National Liberation and the Ukrainian, Belorussian, and Lithuanian Soviet Republics agreed upon a «mutual evacuation of citizens». A repatriation agreement with the Russian authorities (concerning the repatriation of Poles from the USSR) was signed in July 1945. According to these resolutions, migration was to be voluntary, the evacuees were to be free to choose their new places of residence, and were to be compensated for property left behind. In reality however, pressure and terror played a major role in the «repatriation» of both Ukrainians from Poland and Poles form the USSR – not «free choice». The migration of Poles practically ended in mid 1946. From 1944-1948, 1,503,263 previously Polish citizens «officially» returned and about 518,000 Ukrainians, Belorussians, and Lithuanians were expelled from Poland to the USSR.
Angelika Königseder - Jewish DPs and Their «Repatriation» to the Promised Land
When the Allied armies occupied Germany in 1945, they found some 6.5 to 7 million displaced persons (DPs) in the future three Western zones of occupation. Among them were between 50,000 and 75,000 Jewish survivors. They were forced to live in hurriedly erected, overfilled camps. In the summer of 1946, the situation of the Jewish DPs changed fundamentally, the main reason being the constant movement of Jews from Eastern Europe, primarily from Poland, into Germany and Austria, reaching its zenith after the pogrom of Kielce in July 1946. Nearly all the Jewish DPs agreed that after the Holocaust, Zionism was the only political movement that held any meaning for them. So, the declaration of Israel’s independence in May 14, 1948 was greeted with wild enthusiasm in the Jewish DP camps. The mass exodus to the newborn state and to the United States and Canada brought about the closing of the DP camps in Germany.
Claudia Kraft - Comparing the Expulsion of Germans from East Prussia and Lower Silesia in the Immediate Post-War Period, 1945-1946
On the basis of broad research in Polish archives, the paper discusses the expulsion of the Germans from Poland after World War II. By comparing the living conditions of the German population in two different regions of the socalled «recovered territories» – East Prussia and Lower Silesia – it is demostrated, that the German population in post-war Poland cannot be seen as a homogeneous «community of fate» (Schicksalsgemeinschaft), as it was described for a long time in German historiography. The policies of the Polish government and of the Soviet troops widely differed concerning the respective regions. Although all political camps and the population agreed on the plan to expell the Germans, the process of expulsion and the living conditions before it differed in the two regions. For the living conditions of the Germans not only the Polish policy but also the demographic structure and the degree of the destruction due to the war were decisive. Hence, many factors palyed a role in the way in which the expulsions were carried out.
Hartmut Kühne - Der historische Kontext «erfolgreicher» spätmittelalterlicher Gnadenorte im mittel- und norddeutschen Raum
In Germany, systematic and comparative research on pilgrimage, shrines, and pilgrimage churches has traditionally been the domain of folklore and anthropology. Hence, the focus was on the Roman-Catholic areas of southern and northwestern Germany where there has been an unbroken practice of pilgrimage since the 16th century. Not lastly because of the research of Lionel Rothkrug the prevailing impression was that in those areas which eventually became Protestant, i.e. central and northern Germany, there was less activity with fewer shrines and pilgrimage-churches, even in the Middle Ages, than in those areas which later became Catholic. However, since the 14th century, there has in fact been a similar frequency of pilgrimages in these areas of the German-Roman Empire. Evidence of this is provided by pilgrim badges, and, especially in the Hanseatic cities, by documentary evidence of individual wills and bequests relating to pilgrimages and the building of shrines and pilgrimage-churches. One of the reasons for this development was the multiple support that pilgrimage churches received from various authorities, e.g. secular lords, local and regional elites, bishops, and also monastic orders (like the Antonites), which together created an institutional framework for the continual development of pilgrimage and pilgrimage-churches. What used to be random occurrences thus became long-term, regular events, especially through legal, financial, and architectural measures, the acquisition of curial/papal indulgences, and the display of relics. This is how shrines and pilgrimage-churches also became places of representation for the secular and spiritual elites of the land.
Erich Lamberz - Stand und Perspektiven der Edition der Konzilsakten des Frühen Mittelalters (692-880) in den «Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum»
After Rudolf Riedinger had completed his edition of the Acts of the Sixth Oecumenical Council, the author was entrusted with the task of editing those of the Seventh Oecumenical Council (Nicaenum II) of 787. This contribution reports on the preparatory work already undertaken for this edition, and the results achieved with reference to the whole of the Greek tradition and the Latin translation made in 873 by Anastasius Bibliothecarius. As well as this, there is discussion of the following topics relevant to the edition: the fragments of an earlier Latin translation; the letters of Pope Hadrian I transmitted in the Acts; the Greek florilegia concerning the veneration of icons; and the canonical tradition in both Greek and Latin. The report on Nicaenum II ends with a summary account of the transmission of the Acts, and a discussion of the specific problems involved in editing them. The article also introduces two further editions now being prepared in the series of ACO: the texts of the Quinisextum of 692 (Heinz Ohme), and the Latin text of the Council of 869/70 (Claudio Leonardi). It further discusses the editions, still to be undertaken, of the Greek epitome of the Acts of 869/70, and of the Acts of the Council of 879-880.
Giuliano Marchetto - Il matrimonio tra politica e diritto: la «Sylva nuptialis» di Giovanni Nevizzano d’Asti (1518)
The dispute on the utility of matrimony that constitutes the leitmotif of the four books of the Sylva Nuptialis by the Piedmontese jurist Giovanni Nevizzano d’Asti (c.1490-1540) became the backdrop for a reaffirmation of the fittingness for people to marry. The humanistic motive of the superiority of active life over contemplative life, which Nevizzano adopted, lies at the basis of the arguments in favor of marriage. Even though he does take the religious aspect into consideration, i.e. the necessity of marriage as expressed by Catholic Church teachings for those who cannot chose a virtuous life, married life is to be chosen first of all for the good which ensues from it for the superior community of the civitas. Thus, in the complex of Nevizzano’s treatment, marriage takes on an essentially political role, as confirmation of the fact that in the early modern period it’s public dimension prevailed over the private one.
Peter Jan Margry - Methodische und analytische Probleme einer Totalinventarisation der Wallfahrtsstätten in den Niederlanden
This article deals with the methodological and analytical problems with which the project «Bedevaartplaatsen in Nederland» (Places of Pilgrimage in the Netherlands) was approached. The project describes the Dutch pilgrimage culture from the early Middle Ages (6th century) up until the year 2000. This resulted in a four-volume book (and web-site: www.meertens.nl/bol/) containing extensive descriptions of all the retrieved 658 pilgrimage places, of which nearly 40% are still active. Especially important were the criteria with which these places have to comply in order to attain the status of pilgrimage site. From the ethnological perspective it was further irrelevant if the shrines were acknowledged or not by the catholic hierarchy. This means that also contestant and rather recent cults came into the focus of the research project.
János Mayer - Zur Eingliederung der vertriebenen Ungarndeutschen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland
After World War II, around 200,000 German Hungarians (exact figures are still not available) were expelled from Hungary. This paper deals with their integration into German society (West Germany and the Soviet zone). This group of Vertiebenen was relatively small in number in comparison to other expellee groups and it has hitherto been neglected by historical research. After 200 years in Hungary, the German community had stronger ties to its host country than to its unknown country of origin. For the most part, this paper focuses on two characteristic aspects of the expellees’ integration: 1) the relationship of the German Hungarians to the locals, and 2) the changes in their life style, which influenced integration in a decisive manner. On these grounds, the paper concludes that this integration, though difficult, was successful.
Umberto Mazzone - L’esperienza di edizione del «Concilium Tridentinum»
The edition of the Concilium Tridentinum by the Görres Gesellschaft (begun in 1901 and completed in 2001) was not only a seriously erudite commitment upheld by a valid critical and philological method, but also indicative of the wish of the German Catholics to affirm their cultural, social, and political presence. The edition of the documents of the Council of Trent was – for a long time – object of discord and caused strong institutional, ecclesiological, theological, and political tensions. From Paolo Sarpi to Sforza Pallavicino, from Theiner to Döllinger, from Merkle to Jedin, every new approach to the conciliar documents marked a precise epoch. After the controversialist historiography and the difficult years around the First Vatican Council, serious scientific studies only became possible with the opening of the Vatican Archives by Leo XIII. During the fertile season of historical research at the end of the 19th century, the Görres Gesellschaft, a manifestation of the German catholic movement, published the Concilium Tridentinum, which is equal to the Monumenta Germaniae Historica and the Nuntiaturberichte aus Deutschland as far as the criteria of methodological rigor are concerned, even though it may be seen as a further expression of the ideal contraposition, which developed as a reaction to the Kulturkampf.
Alberto Melloni - Vaticano I, Vaticano II. L’edizione dei concili dell’età contemporanea
The last two councils of the Roman Catholic Church were edited in different research projects. Vatican I papers were gathered in Rome after the council’s sudden end and the collapse of secular power. Msgr. Cecconi and other scholars used them to defend the Decrees, as evidences of the «real» council against the doubts and the discontent of the Minority. Some forty years later, Msgr. Cecconi included a complete edition of the Roman papers of Vatican I in a final section of his re-edition of Mansi. Vatican II papers were also kept in the Secret Vatican Archives - they simply mirror the archive of the general Secretariat of Vatican II. Pope Paul VI wanted this vast documentation accessible to scholars, as opposed to the sad destiny of the Council of Trent papers. These papers were the basis for a now completed edition of the Acta, but more documents (letters, journals, notes) lay elsewhere and they an important factor for understanding Vatican II. Research on the history of Vatican II made these sources available and lead to their publication. The possibilities for directly comparing and exploring these sources – acta and «private» papers – are quite rare however, and it is even more difficult to appreciate shifts and changes in comparison with respect to the long conciliar tradition. Comparable to Msgr. Petit’s incorporation of Vatican I into Mansi on paper, a project for the incorporation of Vatican II into a digital version of Mansi is now under way.
Nelson H. Minnich - The First Printed Editions of the Modern Councils: from Konstanz to Lateran V (1499-1526)
From 1499 to 1526 the editiones principes of the five late medieval/early modern general councils were edited and printed: Basel-Lausanne (1431-1449) by Sebastian Brant in 1499, Konstanz (1414-1418) by Hieronymus de Croaria in 1500, Pisa-Milan-Asti-Lyon (1511/12) by Zaccaria Ferreri in 1512, Lateran V (1512-1517) by Antonio del Monte in 1521, and Ferrara-Florence (1438/39) by Bartholomaeus Abramus Siringi in 1526. Their editors were motivated by the desire to carry out the wishes of ecclesiastical authorities ordering their publication, to save the councils from oblivion and encourage the observance of their decrees, to secure personal fame and public benefit, and to promote civic or national pride. The materials included in their conciliar collections grew over time: from basically just decrees to including information on proceedings, participants, sermons, mandates of adhering civil rulers, letters, and votes. While Paolo Manuzio seems to have followed the model of Brant’s edition of Basel for his Roman edition of Trent (1564), Gian Battista Bozzola was closer to del Monte’s edition of Lateran V when publishing his edition of Trent in Brescia in 1563.
Katia Occhi - Manoscritti trentini ritrovati a Innsbruck. L’inventario in lingua tedesca della Sezione latina (sec. XVI) e l’inventario in lingua latina della Sezione tedesca (sec. XVIII)
The author describes two antique repertories of the archives of the Bishoply Principality of Trent she discovered in the Tiroler Landesarchiv of Innsbruck. They date back to the 16th and 17th centuries. The first one is of great value as it allows recreating the structure of the princely archives, already organized in capsae at the beginning of the century. The author conjectures that it was compiled by the Tyrolean chancellery during the period the archive was held in Innsbruck from 1407-1532, probably upon invitation from Cardinal Bernardo Clesio, chancellor to Ferdinand I of Habsburg, in view of the request for its restitution (which took place in 1532). The second piece is the Latin repertory of the German section compiled by father Antonio Inama from Fondo. This is a replica of the better known repertory of the Latin section, the Repertorium Archivi Episcopalis Tridentini, compiled by Giuseppe Ippolito Hippoliti and Angelo Maria Zatelli between 1759 and 1762, which was thought to have been lost. Especially the first finding challenges the hypothesis – hitherto endorsed by Trentino historiography – that the structuring of the princely archives in capsae goes back to Hippoliti and Zatelli. It actually goes back to the beginning of the 16th century.
Adolf Martin Ritter - Stand und Perspektiven der Edition der «Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum» Bis zum VI. ökumenischen Konzil einschließlich, mit einem Seitenblick auf wichtigste begleitende Studien
This paper looks back on the history of one of the major projects of international patristics, a real «Jahrhundertwerk», the Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum (ACO), founded by Eduard Schwartz (1858-1940) who also published the first volumes (including the acts of Ephesus 431, Chalcedon 451, the so-called «Collectio Sabbaitica», and one volume with material referring to the Fifth Ecumenical Council of Constantinople II). After Schwartz’s death, J. Straub took over the responsibility for the continuation of the great enterprise, now under the auspices of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences (Munich). This paper focuses on the contributions of U.(R.) Riedinger as editor of the ACO and on a series of studies concomitant with the ACO, mainly inspired by them. There are real chances – and it is very comforting to know this – that the ACO’s history will in due time end as a success story and reach the goals E. Schwartz had set.
Rainer Schulze - Die deutsche Titanic und die verlorene Heimat. Flucht und Vertreibung der deutschen Bevölkerung aus Mittel-, Ost- und Südosteuropa in der deutschen kollektiven Erinnerung
The mass flight and expulsion of German populations from their traditional homelands in central, eastern, and south eastern Europe after the Second World War was an act on an unprecedented scale; more than 13 million Germans were affected by this forced migration. Their integration into the two postwar German states is today widely regarded as a great success story. However, this came at a cost: the refugees and expellees had to integrate into the postwar polity, economy and society without their memories and experiences receiving due recognition in a common narrative of the receiving areas. With the unification of the two German states, flight and expulsion have begun to be linked into an overall German collective memory. Novelists took up this theme, and it has also entered the political discourse again. Günter Grass’ novella Im Krebsgang (English translation: Crabwalk, 2003) was an important step in this development. However, the remembrance of individual pain suffered by Germans must not be allowed to blur the German responsibility for the crimes committed during the Nazi period, and the jury is still out whether the difficult task of combining the two will be mastered successfully, or whether old prejudices and fears will resurface instead.
Tamás Stark - Population Movements in Central-Eastern Europe after the War
The ethnic transitions that began in 1938 received new impetus by the progress of the Soviet army in 1944. For the Eastern-European countries belonging to the victorious party, it was time to enforce national goals and create ethnically homogeneous nation states. The Soviet army itself implemented the detailed Czechoslovakian, Yugoslavian, and part of the Romanian wartime plans. The advancing Soviet army partly or completely expelled the ethnically alien Germans and Hungarians. In Romania, about 75,000 person of mainly ethnic Germans origin were displaced and deported to the Soviet Union. The number of civilian Hungarians and ethnic Germans in Hungary in Soviet custody may be put at 200-250,000. In Yugoslavia, two thirds of the 510,000 Germans withdrew with the retreating Wehrmacht. The approximately 150,000 Germans who stayed were interned in forced-labor camps. During the years following the war, about 300,000 Italians left Dalmatia and Istria for Italy. In Voivodina, ethnic cleansing went on until January 1945 and caused at least 20,000 Hungarian victims. Another 65,000 Hungarians were expelled to Hungary. By the end of the forties, practically no Germans remained on Czechoslovak territory, the Czechoslovak government, however, did not entirely succeed in relocating the other non-Slavic ethnic group in the country: the Hungarians.
Barbara Stelzl-Marx - «Kommt schnellstens in die Heimat zurück!». Broschüren und Plakate für sowjetische Repatrianten
At the end of World War II, millions of former Soviet prisoners of war and forced laborers in the «Third Reich» were repatriated to the USSR. Not all of them returned voluntarily since already in 1941 Stalin had announced his intention to punish these «traitors to their country». On the other hand, the Soviet regime wanted «each and every Soviet citizen» to return home after liberation. To this aim, a special department for propaganda was founded within the administration for repatriation in the fall of 1944. Numerous booklets, posters, and newspaper articles were written, radio broadcasts, or even movies were produced; all in order to convince displaced persons that «Mother Russia» was waiting for her «sons and daughters». The following article focuses on two central parts of this effective propaganda machinery, namely posters and booklets.
Carlo Taviani - I gravami trentini del 1525
During the «peasant war» of 1525, which also involved the regions of south Tyrol and Trentino, different types of grievances were elaborated. In the city of Trent, the revolt did not reach such extreme degrees of violence as in many regions of the Holy Roman Empire. Here the quarter’s council (a popular delegation invoked in critical political times) clashed with the Bishop and the Consuls and issued a long series of gravamina to be submitted to the imperial Diet of Innsbruck in the summer 1525. The following paper contains a transcription of this material, which might be helpful in understanding the level of unrest, which characterized the city, and in identifying the different political alignments. These gravamina are the product of the mediation of the quarter’s representatives and the Consuls as they portray both positions. They are not to be considered as mere documents about the «peasant war»; they can also be seen as the product of a political system, which had – over time – developed the tools to absorb the blows and the most violent effects of social change.
Leonida Tedoldi - Segretezza e procedura del sistema inquisitoriale del Consiglio dei Dieci nella Repubblica di Venezia. Avvio di una riflessione
What idea of the use made of secrecy emerges from the Venetian criminal system? Together with the satellite courts and local mainland city courts, the Council of Ten developed its repressive action through inquisitorial proceedings, which used secret judicial inquiry and torture as a means of extorting confessions, while it did not provide for the legal defense of the accused. Thus, secrecy acquired a symbolic value, representing the political power of the judicial authority. Secrecy, within the framework of criminal trial proceedings, was perhaps also a way of guaranteeing the safety of the witnesses and the truth of the evidence, and therefore, implicitly, the sought-after legitimacy of the proceedings. The Venetian criminal trialwas experienced as a search for simplification, a synonym of rapidity and therefore of the efficacious union of the written code with the justice of the Prince. Resorting to the secret communication of depositions and secret preliminary investigations made the Venetian judicial system less respectful of the strategy of maintaining the social «inequality» of the «order» of society.
Mario Tosti - Organizzazione del sacro e dinamiche religiose in Umbria nell’età della Controriforma
This essay aims to reconstruct the geography of sanctuaries in a limited area where it is easier to investigate the lattice of roads and settlements, the social and economic dynamics, and the Tridentine Church’s strategies of organizing its institutions. In this perspective, the paper deals with the relationship between fairs and sanctuaries in a territorial contest already marginalized by the novel politics of mercantilism. I consider the main directives according to which – under the watchful eye of Rome – the reorganization of the net of sanctuaries was undertaken with the intention of stabilizing devotions and the pilgrims’ affluence to the sacred places of Assisi. The town of sanctuaries became a «sanctuary-town» and thus acquired international appeal. At the same time, thethaumaturgicand miraculous aspects of devotion were progressively limited and ancient adorations replaced with the devotion to the Virgin. Especially the countryside was object to this renewed attention. Around the turn of the 17th to the 18th century, primarily through Marian sanctuaries and a thorough spreading of her iconography by religious orders (the Jesuits in particular), the countryside underwent an unyielding process of religious integration.
Stefano Trinchese - L’Europa perduta di Alcide De Gasperi
Alcide De Gasperi was born in Pieve Tesino (Trentino) in 1881. For 37 years, he lived under the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He received his schooling in Trent at the diocesan gymnasium and went to university in Vienna where he studied literature and philology. Early on, he worked as a journalist for a number of newspapers in Trent and later for the important catholic paper «Reichspost». Through the editor of the latter, Friedrich Funder, he probably gained access to the circle of Franz Ferdinand’s shadow cabinet, where a group of intellectuals was collecting proposals for a reform of the Empire. In 1911, he was elected member of the national parliament in Vienna and of the Diet in Innsbruck. During this period, he concentrated his dialectical energies on the possibility of a «positive nationalism» for the populations of the Double Monarchy: the cohabitation of different cultural nationalities under one political authority. During World War I, whose drawing closer he heralded in a brilliant series of articles in the national press, he followed the fate of the population of Trent, evacuated by the military authorities because of the approaching war. What influence did this long interlude under the Habsburg Monarchy have on De Gasperi’s temperament and (future) political choices? This essay examines the cultural and political presence of a «lost world» as the key to a better understanding of De Gasperi’s European aims and orientations.